StubbyRoot Nematode Paratrichodorus spp

The stubby root nematode has been on the increase as the main species causing damage in the eastern states of Australia. Threshold numbers of this species is based on >80 in 200mls of soil when using the White Head tray extraction method. The stubby root nematode is found in numerous parts of the world and are external feeders (ectoparasitic) at the tips and sides of young succulent roots. It has been recorded that at least five species of Paratrichodorus transmit plant viruses


A Swollen Condtion of Cuticle
B Non Swollen cuticle
a Curved stylet


Nematodes Damaging Turf

There is a complex of nematodes damaging turf in Australia but the damage thresholds for these are not yet well defined. Factors such as grass species, mowing height, nutritional status, soil compaction, soil type and presence of other root pathogens all influence the extent of damage by nematodes (Stirling et al. 1999). Like most plant parasitic nematodes those infesting turf use a stylet or spear at their head end, rather like a hypodermic syringe, to pierce plant cells and then suck out fluids from within. The most important nematodes in turf (information kindly supplied by Turgrass Technology) are:

Plant Parasitic Nematode Threshold for damage
Common name Genus name 1200 ml soil
Root Knot Meloidogyne 100
Root Lesion Pratylenchus 100
Stubby Root Paratrichodorus 80


Xiphinema 60
Spiral Spiral 600
Pin Paratylenchus 200
Ring Criconemella 200
Sheath Hemicycliophora 160
Stunt Tylenchorhynchus 200
Sting Ipibora 20
Awl Dolichodorus 20
Lance Hoplolaimus 80
Needle Longidorus 40
Cyst (larvae) Heterodera 150

Table of General Threshold Damage levels for Turf

Plant parasitic nematodes were associated with sports turf damage in Australia in the late 1960's and early 1970's.

Nematodes vary in size ranging from 0.08-2.0mm in length. The sting nematode (Belonolaimus spp) is a large nematode and cause severe damage to turfgrass in relatively low numbers compared to other species.